Aitareyopaniṣat | 爱多列雅奥义书


Aitareyopaniṣat

爱多列雅奥义书


徐梵澄 译


oṃ vāṅ me manasi pratiṣṭhitā mano me vāci pratiṣṭhitamāvirāvīrma edhi |

vedasya ma āṇīsthaḥ | śrutaṃ me mā prahāsīranenādhītenāhorātrān sandadhāmi| ṛtaṃ vadiṣyāmi satyaṃ vadiṣyāmi | tanmāmavatu tadvaktāramavatu | avatumāmavatu vaktāram || oṃ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ||

我语安意中,我意安于语!(至上者!)汝其示似我!(意与语!)汝乃《韦陀》之二辖!愿所学闻不我弃!以我所学续持日与夜!至道我将说!真理我将说!愿此护我!愿此护讲师!护我,护讲师!护讲师!唵!平安!平安!平安!


Prathamo'dhyāyaḥ

第一章


oṃ ātmā vā idameka evāgra āsīnnānyatkiṃcana miṣat |

sa aikṣata lokānnu sṛjā iti ||1.1||

太初,此世界唯独“自我”也。无有任何其他睒眼者。彼自思惟:“我其创造世界夫!”


sa imāṃllokānasṛjata | ambho marīcīrmaramāpo'do'mbhaḥ pareṇa divaṃ dyauḥ pratiṣṭhā'ntarikṣaṃ marīcayaḥ pṛthivī maro yā adhastāttā āpaḥ ||1.2||

彼遂创造此诸世界:洪洋也,光明也,死亡也,诸水也。洪洋在天之彼面,天为其基。两间,诸光明也。地,死亡也。地之下者,诸水是也。


sa īkṣateme nu lokā lokapālānnu sṛjā iti |

so'dbhya eva puruṣaṃ samuddhṛtyāmūrchayat ||1.3||

彼自思惟:“吁!此诸世界也,我其创造护持世界者乎!”——彼遂直由诸水取出一真元体而形成之。


tamabhyatapattasyābhitaptasya mukhaṃ nirabhidyata yathā'ṇḍaṃ | mukhādvāgvāco'gnirnāsike nirabhidyetāṃ nāsikābhyāṃ prāṇaḥ prāṇādvāyurakṣiṇī nirabhidyetamakṣībhyāṃ cakṣuścakṣuṣa ādityaḥ karṇau nirabhidyetāṃ karṇābhyāṃ śrotraṃ śrotraddiśastvaṅnirabhidyata tvaco lomāni lomabhya oṣadhivanaspatayo hṛdayaṃ nirabhidyata hṛdayānmano manasaścandramā nābhirnirabhidyata nābhyā apāno'pānānmṛtyuḥ śiśnaṃ nirabhidyata śiśnādreto retasa āpaḥ ||1.4||

彼遂以思虑凝集之。以其受彼思虑之凝集也,口遂分别而出焉,如卵。由口生语言,由语言生火。鼻遂启焉,由鼻生气,由气生风。眼遂开焉,由眼生见,由见生太阳。耳遂张焉,由耳生闻,由闻生诸方。皮遂现焉,由皮生毛发,由毛发生草木。心遂出焉,由心生意,由意生月。脐遂露焉,由脐生下气,由下气生死亡。肾遂分焉,由肾生精,由精生水。


Dvitīyo'dhyāyaḥ

第二章


tā etā devatāḥ sṛṣṭā asminmahatyarṇave prāpatan |

tamaśanāpipāsābhyāmanvavārjat |

tā enamabruvannāyatanaṃ naḥ prajānīhi yasminpratiṣṭhitā annamadāmeti ||2.1||

此诸天既生,皆堕于此大海荡中;彼遂委之于饥渴。彼等谓之曰:“尔其使我等有归宿乎!庶我辈安立其中,可得食也。”


tābhyo gāmānayattā abruvanna vai no'yamalamiti |

tābhyo'śvamānayattā abruvanna vai no'yamalamiti ||2.2||

彼遂引一牛与之。彼等曰:“唉!此于我辈为不足也!”——彼遂引一马与之。彼等曰:“唉!此于我辈为不足也!”


tābhyaḥ puruṣamānayattā abruvan sukṛtaṃ bateti puruṣo vāva sukṛtam |

tā abravīdyathāyatanaṃ praviśateti ||2.3||

彼遂引一人与之。彼等曰:“呜呼!作之善矣!”——诚然,唯人为善成作者也!彼谓诸天曰:“尔等其各就归处而入矣!”


agnirvāgbhūtvā mukhaṃ prāviśadvāyuḥ prāṇo bhūtvā nāsike prāviśadādityaścakṣurbhūtvā'kṣiṇī prāviśaddiśaḥ śrotraṃ bhūtvā karṇau prāviśannoṣadhivanaspatayo lomāni bhūtvā tvacaṃprāviśaṃścandramā mano bhūtvā hṛdayaṃ prāviśanmṛtyurapāno bhūtvā nābhiṃ prāviśadāpo reto bhūtvā śiśnaṃ prāviśan ||2.4||

火化为语言,乃入乎口。风化为气息,乃入乎鼻。太阳化为见,乃入乎眼。诸方化为闻,乃入乎耳。草木化为毛发,乃入乎皮。月化为意,乃入乎心。死亡化为下气,乃入乎脐。水化为精液,乃入乎肾。


tamaśanāyāpipāse abrūtāmāvābhyāmabhiprajānīhīti te abravīdetāsveva vāṃ devatāsvābhajāmyetāsu bhāginyau karomīti | tasmādyasyai kasyai ca devatāyai havirgṛhyate bhāginyāvevāsyāmaśanāyāpipāse bhavataḥ ||2.5||

饥与渴谓彼曰:“亦有以处我等乎?”彼答之曰:“我安置尔等于彼诸天处,使尔等为其分享之侣!”——是故每于任何天神有所献祀,饥与渴皆其分享之俦侣焉。



Tṛtīyo'dhyāyaḥ

第三章


sa īkṣateme nu lokāśca lokapālāścānnamebhyaḥ sṛjā iti ||3.1||

彼自思惟:“此我之诸界也,此诸护世也,我且为之创造食物哉!”


so'po'bhyatapattābhyo'bhitaptābhyo mūrtirajāyata |

yā vai sā mūrtirajāyatānnaṃ vai tat ||3.2||

彼乃凝集其思虑于水。水受彼思虑之凝集已,形质遂生。夫唯所生之形质,食物是已。

tadenatsṛṣṭaṃ parāṅatyajighāṃsattadvācā'jighṛkṣat tannāśaknodvācā grahītum |

sa yaddhainadvācā'grahaiṣyadabhivyāhṛtya haivānnamatrapsyat ||

食物既创生已,遂欲逃去。彼趣以语言摄持之,而未能以语言摄之也。倘其以语言而摄得之,则唯说食物可饱矣!


tatprāṇenājighṛkṣat tannāśaknotprāṇena grahītuṃ sa yaddhainatprāṇenāgrahaiṣyadabhiprāṇya haivānnamatrapsyat ||3.4||

彼趣以气息摄持之,而未能以气息摄之也。倘其以气息而摄得之,则唯嗅食物可饱矣!


taccakṣuṣā'jighṛkṣat tannāśaknoccakṣuṣā grahītuṃ sa yaddhainaccakṣuṣā'grahaiṣyaddṛṣṭvā haivānamatrapsyat ||3.5||

彼趣以眼摄持之,而未能以眼摄之也。倘其以眼而摄得之,则唯观食物可饱矣!


tacchrotreṇājighṛkṣat tannāśaknocchrotreṇa grahītuṃ sa yaddhainacchroteṇāgrahaiṣyacchrutvā haivānnamatrapsyat ||3.6||

彼趣以耳摄持之,而未能以耳摄之也。倘其以耳而摄得之,则唯闻食物可饱矣!


tattvacā'jighṛkṣat tannāśaknottvacā grahītuṃ sa yaddhainattvacā'grahaiṣyat spṛṣṭvā haivānnamatrapsyat ||3.7||

彼趣以皮摄持之,而未能以皮摄之也。倘其以皮而摄得之,则唯触食物可饱矣!


tanmanasā'jighṛkṣat tannāśaknonmanasā grahītuṃ sa yaddhainanmanasā'grahaiṣyaddhyātvā haivānnamatrapsyat ||3.8||

彼趣以意摄持之,而未能以意摄之也。倘其以意而摄得之,则唯念食物可饱矣!


tacchiśnenājighṛkṣat tannāśaknocchiśnena grahītuṃ sa yaddhainacchiśnenāgrahaiṣyadvisṛjya haivānamatrapsyat ||3.9||

彼趣以肾摄持之,而未能以肾摄之也。倘其以肾而摄得之,则唯泄食物可饱矣!


tadapānenājighṛkṣat tadāvayat saiṣo'nnasya graho yadvāyurannāyurvā eṣa yadvāyuḥ ||3.10||

彼趣以下气摄持之,遂得焉。此食物获得者,气是也。此依食物而生者,风是也。

sa īkṣata kathaṃ nvidaṃ madṛte syāditi sa īkṣata katareṇa prapadyā iti | sa īkṣata yadi vācā'bhivyāhṛtaṃ yadi prāṇenābhiprāṇitaṃ yadi cakṣuṣā dṛṣṭaṃ yadi śrotreṇa śrutaṃ yadi tvacā spṛṣṭaṃ yadi manasā dhyātaṃ yadyapānenābhyapānitaṃ yadi śiśnena visṛṣṭamatha ko'hamiti ||3.11||

彼自思惟:“无我此将如何耶?”彼自思惟:“我何由而入乎?”彼自思惟:“若以语言而得言,若以气而呼吸,若以眼而得见,若以耳而得闻,若以皮而得触,若以意而得思,若以下气而得消化,若以肾而得泄,——则我将为何者耶?”

sa etameva sīmānaṃ vidāryaitayā dvārā prāpadyata |

saiṣā vidṛtirnāma dvāstadetannāndanam |

tasya traya āvasathāstrayaḥ svapnā ayamāvasatho'yamāvasatho'yamāvasatha iti ||3.12||

彼直启其头顶发分处,由是门而入。此门谓之囟,是即“喜乐”处也。彼有其三居处,有其三睡境;此一居处也,此一居处也,此一居处也。

sa jāto bhūtānyabhivyaikhyat kimihānyaṃ vāvadiṣaditi |

sa etameva puruṣaṃ brahma tatamamapaśyat | idamadarśanamitī ||3.13||

彼既生矣,则观察众生,曰:“是处有谁谓异于我者耶?”彼惟见此神灵体,是大梵所遍漫者,曰:“吾见之矣!”

tasmādidandro nāmedandro ha vai nāma |

tamidandraṃ santamindra ityācakṣate parokṣeṇa |

parokṣapriyā iva hi devāḥ parokṣapriyā iva hi devāḥ ||3.14||

是故彼名曰“见此者”。唯然,“伊檀陀罗”乃彼之名。以彼名“伊檀陀罗”也,故隐秘之称曰“因陀罗”(Indra)。盖诸天皆似好隐也。盖诸天皆似好隐也。



Caturtho'dhyāyaḥ

第四章


oṃ puruṣe ha vā ayamādito garbho bhavati yadetadretaḥ | tadetatsarvebhyo'ṅgebhyastejaḥ saṃbhūtamātmanyeva''tmānaṃ bibharti tadyadā striyāṃ siñcatyathainajjanayati tadasya prathamaṃ janma ||4.1||

唯然!人中此始为胎藏。为其精液者,是集自诸体之真元力。在其自身,彼固承载一自我矣。当其注之于女子也,则使之生出,是彼之第一生也。

tatstriyā ātmabhūyaṃ gacchati yathā svamaṅgaṃ tathā |

tasmādenāṃ na hinasti| sā'syaitamātmānamatra gataṃ bhāvayati ||4.2||

是则入乎女子之自体存在,如其一体焉。是故彼于女子无伤。于此外来彼之自我,女子乃孕育之。


sā bhāvayitrī bhāvayitavyā bhavati | taṃ strī garbhaṃ bibharti | so'gra eva kumāraṃ janmano'gre'dhibhāvayati | sa yatkumāraṃ janmano'gre'dhibhāvayati ātmānameva tadbhāvayatyeṣāṃ lokānāṃ santatyā | evaṃ santatā hīme lokāstadasya dvitīyaṃ janma ||4.3||

以其孕育之也,故女子必得养焉。孕育之而为胎。男子则养子于产生之前,亦随而养之于后。其养子于产生之前亦随而养之于后也,彼实遂成其自我,为此诸世人之持续也。盖此诸人世之持续也如是。是彼之第二生也。


so'syāyamātmā puṇyebhyaḥ karmabhyaḥ pratidhīyate |

athāsyāyamitara ātmā kṛtakṛtyo vayogataḥ praiti |

sa itaḥ prayanneva punarjāyate tadasya tṛtīyaṃ janma ||4.4||

此则立以代(其父之)自我而为福德业。而彼别一自我,所作已办,年寿已尽,则逝矣。其舍离斯世也,重复转生,是彼之第三生也。是故仙人作如是言(《黎俱韦陀》(Ṛ.V.)4.27.1.):


taduktamṛṣiṇā | garbhe nu sannanveṣāmavedamahaṃ devānāṃ janimāni viśvā śataṃ mā pura āyasīrarakṣannadhaḥ śyeno javasā niradīyamiti |

garbha evaitacchayāno vāmadeva evamuvāca ||4.5||

诸天之诸生,处胎我已悉。

护我百铁城,我迅如隼逸。

——涡摩提婆犹处胎藏中时,作如是言。


sa evaṃ vidvānasmāccharīrabhedādūrdhva utkramyāmuṣmin svarge loke sarvān kāmānāptvā'mṛtaḥ samabhavat samabhavat ||4.6||

彼如是知者,舍此身后上升,在彼方天界中尽得其乐欲,永生其臻至矣!其臻至矣!



Pañcamo'dhyāyaḥ

第五章


oṃ ko'yamātmeti vayamupāsmahe kataraḥ sa ātmā | yena vā paśyati yena vā śṛṇoti yena vā gandhānājighrati yena vā vācaṃ vyākaroti yena vā svādu cāsvādu ca vijānāti ||5.1||

是为谁耶?我辈敬为“自我”者也。是谁自我耶?是以彼而见色,以彼而闻声,以彼而嗅香,以彼而吐言语,以彼而辨甘苦者耶?


yadetaddhṛdayaṃ manaścaitat | saṃjñānamājñānaṃ vijñānaṃ prajñānaṃ medhā dṛṣṭirdhṛtirmatirmanīṣā jūtiḥ smṛtiḥ saṃkalpaḥ kraturasuḥ kāmo vaśa iti | sarvāṇyevaitāni prajñānasya nāmadheyāni bhavaṃti ||5.2||

凡为此心者,亦此意者,桑若那也,阿若那也,毗若那也,般若那也,智识也,内视也,毅力也,感觉也,理解也,情念也,记忆也,筹度也,心志也,生力也,情欲也,意欲也——凡此,诚皆般若那之称也。

eṣa brahmaiṣa indra eṣa prajāpatirete sarve devā imāni ca pañcamahābhūtāni pṛthivī vāyurākāśa āpo jyotīṃṣītyetānīmāni ca kṣudramiśrāṇīva | bījānītarāṇi cetarāṇi cāṇḍajāni ca jārujāni ca svedajāni codbhijjāni cāśvā gāvaḥ puruṣā hastino yatkiñcedaṃ prāṇi jaṅgamaṃ ca patatri ca yacca sthāvaraṃ sarvaṃ tatprajñānetraṃ prajñāne pratiṣṭhitaṃ prajñānetro lokaḥ prajñā pratiṣṭhā prajñānaṃ brahma ||5.3||

此即大梵,此即因陀罗,此即般茶帕底,此即诸天,即五大:地、风、空、水、火,即诸微生,如混杂生,即此种与彼种,即诸卵生、胎生、湿生、化生,即马、牛、人、象,即凡此有气息者、行者、飞者、不动者。——凡此,皆为般若所领导,皆安立于般若那中。世界为般若所领导,安立于般若那中,般若那即大梵也。

sa etena prājñenātmanā'smāllokādutkramyāmuṣminsvarge loke sarvān kāmānāptvā'mṛtaḥ samabhavat samabhavat ||5.4||

涡摩提婆以此般若自我,升出此世界(至)于彼方天界中,尽得其乐欲,永生其臻至矣!其臻至矣!如是!唵!

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